Call EMS if:
- The child is unconscious, semi-conscious or unusually confused.
- The child's airway is blocked.
- The child is not breathing.
- The child is having difficulty breathing, shortness of breath or is choking.
- The child has no pulse.
- The child has bleeding that won't stop.
- The child is coughing up or vomiting blood.
- The child has been poisoned
- The child has a seizure for the first time or a seizure that lasts more than 5 minutes.
- The child has injuries to the head neck or back.
- The child has sudden, severe pain anywhere in the body.
- The child's condition is limb-threatening (for example, severe eye injuries, amputations or other injuries that may leave the child permanently disabled unless he/she receives immediate care.)
- The child's condition could worsen or become life-threatening on the way to the hospital.
Moving the child could cause further injury.
- The child needs the skills or equipment of paramedics or emergency medical technicians.
Distance or traffic conditions would cause a delay in getting the child to the hospital.
If any of the above conditions exist, or if you are not sure, it is best to call EMS.
Sources: American Red Cross & American College of Emergency Physicians